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Metabolic Surgery

Type 2 Diabetes has become a serious lifestyle problem in the modern world, with almost 90% of world’s diabetic patients suffering from it. Type 2 diabetes is a medical condition in which body is not able to produce insulin, leading to increased blood glucose levels. This leads to serious medical conditions including nerve damage, heart disease, blindness and kidney disorders. Additionally, Type 2 Diabetes goes along with Obesity, making it even more lethal. Earlier there was no treatment to cure Diabetes; all treatments aimed to control blood glucose levels were long drawn procedures, sometimes meant to be followed for a lifetime. But, now the situation has changed with the advent of Metabolic Surgery.
Metabolic Surgery is a term used to describe surgical procedures that aim to cure metabolic diseases, most importantly Type 2 Diabetes, Insulin resistance, and obesity along with cardiovascular problems. Metabolic surgery provides a great opportunity for patients suffering from above ailments and potentially reaching full remission for Type 2 Diabetes i.e. having normal blood glucose levels without medication. This is achieved by bringing the blood glucose levels to normal and thereafter stopping the progression of diabetic complications, giving the body a chance to repair the damage. This claim has been validated by various clinical trials, which show that metabolic surgery can manage blood-glucose levels more efficiently as compared to any lifestyle or pharmaceutical involvement
Bariatric Surgery is the most prevalent form of metabolic surgery. It is primarily a weight reducing treatment, with a variety of techniques performed on overweight or obese patients. That helps in long lasting weight loss and remission of Type 2 Diabetes in most patients. There are various types of Bariatric Surgeries available for patients to suit their particular requirements, namely: –

  • Sleeve Gastrectomy
  • Gastric Bypass
  • Gastric Band
  • Gastric Balloon
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Although, there are no substantiated evidence, but Metabolic surgery puts type 2 diabetes into full remission, working on following principles –
Reducing the anatomy of the gut, hunger craving hormones are suppressed, reducing food intake and making it easier for the body to manage blood glucose, and
By rerouting the food directly to the small intestine, helps produce hormones to boost insulin supply to the blood.

Although metabolic surgery is generally performed on obese or overweight patients, it is effective even on non-overweight patients also, for the remission of type 2 diabetes.
Metabolic surgery works as a life saver for people who get depressed due to not being able to get rid of diabetes and obesity. The possibility that their lifestyle limiting ailments could be cured provides them with zeal to live their life to the fullest.

Metabolic Syndrome is not a disease in itself but rather is a combination of conditions that occur simultaneously and enhance the risk of development of serious cardiovascular disease and Type 2 Diabetes. A person is diagnosed as being affected by Metabolic Syndrome, if they suffer from any of the below mentioned three ailments at the same time: –

  • Central Obesity i.e. excess fat around abdomen
  • Hypertension or High Blood Pressure
  • Low Levels of HDL (High Density lipoproteins), the good cholesterol
  • Impaired Fasting Glucose i.e. glucose levels are high but not high enough to be classified as Type 2 Diabetes
  • Fatty Liver
  • Polycystic Ovary Disease

Metabolic Syndrome is caused by various underlying reasons, such as being overweight, obese and having a genetic tendency toward resistance to insulin.

It is possible to control metabolic syndrome by making healthy lifestyle changes like losing weight, reducing alcohol intake and smoking, being physically active and healthy eating habits. All the patients suffering from the above mentioned ailments should also consider undergoing Metabolic Surgery to help get rid of the above ailments and in turn be free from metabolic Syndrome.